Governance: Mega govt plan for rural tap water supply

Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

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In News:

  • Under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), the government is planning to set itself an ambitious target to increase the coverage of tap water connections in villages by as much as 155% by next year in comparison to the current financial year.
  • Also, on Gandhi Jayanti, the Union Ministry of Jal Shakti launched a 100-day campaign to ensure potable water supply in all schools and anganwadi centers across the country.
  • Meanwhile, Goa recently became the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ state by providing tap water connection to every rural household under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) ahead of its national dead-line.

News Summary:

  • Under JJM, the government is targeting to increase the coverage of tap water connections in villages by 1.5 times (155%) by next year in comparison to the current financial year.
  • The target is to ensure approximately 4.1 crore village households get tap water connections during the current year and 10.4 crore households by the next year.
  • This will be the biggest jump under the Jal Jeevan Mission, which aims to ensure universal drinking tap water connection to every rural household by 2024.
  • Eventually the aim will be to extend this coverage to nearly 19 crore households in the next four years.

Yearly targeting of states for full rural functional tap water connections:

  • As per the plan, all rural households in four states and UTs — Bihar, Goa, Telangana and Puducherry — will get functional tap water connections 2021.
  • All rural households in another five states — Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Manipur, Sikkim and Ladakh — will achieve this goal in 2022.
  • Another 12 states and UTs will be covered in 2023, while the remaining will get tap water connections in 2024.

Goa becomes the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ state:

  • Goa became the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ state by providing Functional Household Tap Connections (FHTCs) to every rural household under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), covering 2.30 lakh rural households.
  • The state now plans for sensor-based service delivery monitoring system so as to monitor the functionality of water supply i.e. potable water in adequate quantity and of prescribed quality on regular and sustainable basis.

Campaign to ensure potable water supply in schools:

  • Ensuring safe water to children is a priority under Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM) as they are most susceptible to water-borne diseases like typhoid, dysentery, diarrhoea and cholera.
  • Repeated infections due to consumption of unsafe water in their formative years may have debilitating effects on children, resulting in stunting.
  • In this context, on Gandhi Jayanti, the Union Ministry of Jal Shakti launched a 100-day campaign to ensure potable water supply in all schools and anganwadi centers across the country.
  • Jan Andolan:
    • The Union Jal Shakti Minister requested the states/UTs to make it a ‘Jan Andolan’ (people’s movement). He called on the CMs and LGs to lead the campaign in their respective regions.
    • The campaign demands joint efforts involves water supply departments and other departments like education, women and child development, tribal welfare as well as gram panchayat/paani samitis, local communities, NGOs and SHGs etc.

Jal Jeevan Mission

About: Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM)

  • The Jal Jeevan Mission was announced by the Central Government in August 2019.
  • The main objective of the Mission is to provide piped water supply (Har Ghar Jal) to all rural households by 2024.
  • It is also referred to as Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC).
Vision of JJM:
  • Drinking water supply in adequate quantity and prescribed quality for every rural household.
  • The water supply should be regular and long-term at affordable service delivery charges leading to improvement in living standards of rural communities.
Mission of JJM:
  • Jal Jeevan Mission is to assist, empower and facilitate-
    • States/ UTs in planning of participatory rural water supply strategy for ensuring potable drinking water security on long-term basis to every rural household and public institution.
    • States/ UTs for creation of water supply infrastructure so that every rural household has Functional Tap Connection (FHTC) by 2024.
    • States/ UTs to plan for their drinking water security.
    • GPs/ rural communities to plan, implement, manage, own, operate and maintain their own in-village water supply systems.
Broad Objectives of the JJM:
  • To provide Functional Household Tap Connection (FHTC) to every rural household by 2024
  • To prioritize provision of FHTCs in quality affected areas, villages in drought prone and desert areas, Sansad Adarsh Gram Yojana (SAGY) villages, etc.
  • To provide functional tap connection to Schools, Anganwadi centres, GP buildings, Health centres, wellness centres and community buildings
  • To monitor functionality of tap connections
  • To promote and ensure voluntary ownership among local community by way of contribution in cash, kind and/ or labour and voluntary labour (shramdaan).
Executing Agency of JJM:
  • Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Jal Shakti Ministry is the executing agency of the mission.
Implementing Strategy:
  • The Mission will focus on both demand and supply side water management at the local level.
  • It will also focus on creation of local infrastructure like rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge and management of household wastewater for reuse in agriculture.
  • It will converge with other ongoing Central and State Government Schemes to achieve its objectives.
Funding of the Mission:
  • The JJM has a five-year budget of Rs 3.6 lakh crore. It had expected to get this money through a convergence of financing sources.
  • Various financing sources for JJM:
    • Direct budgetary allocations
    • Funds from Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGA) and the Compensatory Afforestation Fund (CAMPA) to create sustainable water sources.
    • Corporate social responsibility, community donations and parliamentarians’ funds for local area development to be used for the village-level infrastructure.
    • The Finance Commission’s grants for panchayats would be used for grey water management and operation and maintenance of the water supply system.
Components under JJM:
  • Development of in-village piped water supply infrastructure to provide tap water connection to every rural household.
  • Development of reliable drinking water sources and/ or augmentation of existing sources to provide long-term sustainability of water supply.
  • Wherever necessary, bulk water transfer, treatment plants and distribution network to cater to every rural household.
  • Technological interventions for removal of contaminants where water quality is an issue.
  • Retrofitting of completed and ongoing schemes to provide FHTCs at minimum service level of 55 lpcd.
  • Greywater management.
  • Any other unforeseen challenges/ issues emerging due to natural disasters/ calamities which affect the goal of FHTC to every household by 2024.
Why JJM is needed?
  • Decreasing Water Availability: The per capita water availability in 2011 in India was 1,545 cubic meters. This makes India a water stressed country.
  • Household water supply: Out of the 18 crore rural households in the country, only 3 crore have access to piped water supply.
  • Water Quality: As per NITI Aayog, about 70% of piped water supply in India is contaminated. This puts a huge pressure of health of people.
  • JJM aims to solve these challenges.

Also Read: Governance Bytes: PM launched Atal Bhujal scheme

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